Gender Representation in English Textbooks for Islamic Junior High School Students

Fahriany Fahriany, Alek Alek, Ismail Suardi Wekke


This article would investigate the gender representation in English textbooks for MTs Students. In detail, the investigation covered: Gender-biased, gender posistion, authors’ understanding, male and female position, the explicitly or implicitly presented the gender representation in the English textbook for MTs students.  Critical Multimodal Analysis and Content Analysis Method was used to analyze the data. The results will be expected is to obtain the clear understanding of each aspects regarding to the gender representation in the English textbooks for MTs as the object of  the investigated. Furthermore, another result can be summed up is the authors of English for MTs use imageare used inequal or unbalance. In other  words, the authors of “English on Sky” Grade VIII for MTs/Junior High School shows that the gender positioning was inequal. In the meantime, the authors use some words to illustrate or depict the gender which are in English textbook “English in Focus”, they are adjective, proper name, and pronoun.  Based on the result as seen above, the authors of the two English textbooks, not only the authors of English in Focus but also English on Sky have somewhat understanding  the gender bias, gender streotype. In other words, those authors of the two textbooks wrote their textbooks were not based on the consideration of gender aspects. In other words, the authors of English textbooks need much the knowledge about gender representation and gender identifies, and have a higher-gender-sensitize in order to avoid inequity or inequilibrium of using image, and illustration or all aspect to weave and develop a completeness and representativeness.The implications for the authors of English textbook that the knowledge of the gender representation and gender identifies are prominent  urgent need for the textbook authors to have a higher-gender-sensitize.


Gender Representation; English Textbooks, Critical Multimodal Analysis, Gender Bias, EFL Textbook


Ansary H., and Babaii E. (2003). Subliminal Sexism in Current ESL/EFL Textbooks. Asian EFL Journal, 5, pp. 200-241.

Ansary, H. & Babaii, E. (2003). Subliminal Sexism in Current ESL/EFL Textbooks. Asian EFL Journal, 5(1)1-15. Retrieved May 10, 2007, from

Anstey, M & Bull, G 2009, Using Multimodal Texts and Digital Resources in a Multiliterate Classroome:update004, e:lit: Primary English Teaching Association, Marrickville, pp. 1–8.

Brown, H. Douglas (2006).Principles of language learning and teaching (5th Edition), Person ESL.

Brown, D. (2009). "Why and how textbooks should encourage extensive reading." ELT Journal, 63, 3, 238-245.

Cook, M. (2005). Gender bias in language textbooks. Journal of the Faculty of Global Communication No. 6 . Siebold University of Nagasaki, 13-18.

Chandran, S. K. & Abdullah, M. H. (2003). Gender bias in Malaysian English language textbooks. In J. Mukundan, (Ed.), Readings on ELT material. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

Clark, R., & Nunes, A. (2008). The face of society: Gender and race in introductory sociology books revisited. Teaching Sociology, 36(3), 227-239

Creswell, JW. (2012). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

PublicationsDavis, K. A. & Skilton-Sylvester, E. (2004). Looking back, taking stock, moving forward: investigating gender in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly 38 (3), pp. 381—404.

Cunningsworth, A. 1995. Choosing Your Coursebook. Oxford: Heinemann.

Dominguez, L. M. (2003). Gender Textbook Evaluation. Centre for English Language Studies: University of Birmingham, full text at

Finch, G. (2003). Wordof mouth: A new introduction to language and communication. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Equality for Women, World Bank, 2003, p. 134. Retrieved from: 19:00.

Fahimeh Marefat and Sheida Marzban. (2014). “Multimodal Analysis of Gender Representation in ELT Textbooks: Reader's

Perceptios.”Procedia-Social Behavioral Sciences 98 (2014) 1093-1099. Retrieved from 15/11/2015:19:24.

Fairclough, N. (2003). Analyzing discourses: Textual analysis for social research. New York: Routledge.

Farooq. M.U. (1999). Examining sexism in an EFL textbooks. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved on November 2, 2015 from

Farooq, M.U. (1999). Examining Sexism in an EFL Textbook. Retrieved May 10, 2007, from

Goddard, A.& Patterson, L.M. (2000). Language and Gender. London: Routledge.

Griffiths, C. (1995).Evaluating Materials for Teaching English to Adult Speakers of other Languages.Forum, 33(3):50

Hartman, P.L. & Judd, E.L., Sexism and TESOL materials, TESOL Quarterly 12 (4), 353-393.

Holmqvist, P., and Gjörup, L. (2006). The Representation of Gender and Gender Roles in English Textbooks.Retrieved November 2, 2015 from

Hsiu-Chin, S. (2009)."The value of English picture story books."ELT Journal, 62, 1, 47-55.


Jaquette, J. S., & Summerfield, G. (Eds.). (2006). Women and gender equity in development theory and practice : Institutions, resources, and mobilization. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press

Kobia, J. M. (2009). Femininity and Masculinity in English Primary School Textbooks in Kenya. The Inter-national Journal of Language, Society, and Culture, 28, 57-71.

Lakoff, R. (2003). Language and women's place. Language in society, 2, pp. 45—80.

Law, K. W. K., & Chan, A. H. N. (2004). Gender role stereotyping in Hong Kong's primary school - Chinese language subject textbooks. Asian Journal of Womens Studies, 10(1), 49-69.

Lee, J.F.K. (2006). Gender Representation in Hong Kong English Textbooks. Retrieved November 6, 2015, 2010. from

Lee, J. F. K., & Collins, P. (2009). Australian English-language textbooks: the gender issues. Gender and Education, 21(4), 353-370.

Lee, J. F. K., & Collins, P. (2010). Construction of gender: a comparison of Australian and Hong Kong English language textbooks. Journal of Gender Studies, 19(2), 121-137.

Losey, K. M. (1995). Gender and ethnicity as factors in the development of verbal skills in bilingual Mexican American women. TESOL Quarterly, 29(4), 635-661.

Low, J., & Sherrard, P. (1999). Portrayal of Women in Sexuality and Marriage and Family Textbooks: A Content-Analysis of Photographs from the 1970s to the 1990s. Sex Roles, 40(3-4), 309-318.

Masoumeh Bahman and Ali Rahimi. (2010). Gender representation in EFL materials: an analysis of English textbooks of Iranian high schools. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 9 (2010), pp. 273–277.

O'Neill, R. (2004). An international publisher's perspective. In Sunderland, J. (Ed.), Exploring Gender. London: Prentice Hall.

Papatzikou Cochran, E. (1996). Gender and the ESL Classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 30(1), 159-162.

Patton, M.Q. (2001). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Plumm, K. M. (2006). Technology in the classroom: Burning the bridges to the gaps in gender-biased education? Computers & Education, doi: 10.1016/j .compedu.2006.10.005

Seng, T. C. (2003). Gender: The missing factor in the selection of materials. In Mukundan, J. (Ed.), Readings on ELT Material. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

UN Millennium Project. 2005. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. p. 30.Retrieved from: 19:00

World Health Organization. (2001). Transforming health systems: gender and rights in reproductive health. Geneva. Retrieved from: 19:00

Shteiwi, M. (2003). Gender Role Stereotypes in Primary School Textbooks in Jordan. DIRASAT, Social and Human Sciences, 30, 90-104, abstract available at

Sunderland, J. (1992). Gender in the EFL classroom. ELT Journal 4 (1), 81-91.

Shehadeh, A. (1999). Gender differences and equal opportunities in the ESL classroom. ELT Journal, 53(4), 256- 261.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright © 2014 - Center for Gender and Child Studies (PSGA) - All rights reserved

free hit counter

Flag Counter

Creative Commons License
Kafa'ah: Journal of Gender Studies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.